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We looked at inside the Binary system, and standard computer logic elements, in previous articles, "It is a world - how computers count" and "How computers add - a sensible approach."
 
  
Now we could combine two parts of these articles to check out a counter. Another popular reasoning aspect in the computer is really a counter or timer. This could b to count items going past a sensor on an assembly line, or maybe a count-down timer. For example, when you yourself have a late...
 
  
Flip-Flops - A simple table
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{{Template:Welcome|realName=Kellie Caro|name=KellieCar}}
  
We viewed the Binary system, and simple computer logic components, in previous articles, "It is really a binary planet - how How computers and computers count include - a rational approach."
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-- 22:05, 4 July 2013 (UTC)
 
 
Now we are able to combine two elements of these articles to check out a counter. Still another typical logic element in a computer is just a counter o-r timer. This may t to count items going past a warning on an assembly line, or maybe a count-down timer. Like, within the event that you have a late model automatic washer it'll have a straightforward computer using a count down timer to give 10-minute wash cycle, and so forth.
 
 
 
There are lots of kinds of counter, nearly all that make use of a basic part of electronics, the Flip-Flop. And you thought they were rubber shoes English people wear to the bath or the beach. (Now Australians say "I thought these were called thongs").
 
 
 
OK straight back on topic. The flip-flop can be as old as electronics, and is a classic example of the binary system. It has two possible stable states, A o-r B, and could be 'toggled' from one state to another, as being a 'push-on, push-off' change. It had been originally created using two vacuum tubes (or one, for example a double triode).
 
 
 
It usually has two components, one being the complement of another. That is,if one output( A) is a logic 0, the other( T) is a logic 1, and vice-versa. The input, or Toggle( T) are at logic 0 until a heart from a warning, for example, arrives. This pulse requires the logic state to 1, then back-to 0. The effect, inducing the Flip-Flop to change, is clearly the CHANGE from 0 to 1.
 
 
 
In logic terms the flip-flop is made up using AND and O-R gates, in logic cicuitry it's merely a 'black box' labelled FF. Several FFs might be grouped into yet another black box, a counter, timer, o-r multivibrator.
 
 
 
We will make up a Table, which we've used before. If you remember, a truth table shows you what the Output will be for all possible Inputs.
 
 
 
REALITY TABLE for Flip Flop - Toggle (D )hange,- Outputs A and B.
 
 
 
INITIAL STATE
 
 
 
T W A
 
 
 
0 1 0 'A' output is 0
 
 
 
BEAT #1
 
 
 
T T A
 
 
 
H 0 1 'A' result is 1
 
 
 
BEAT no 2
 
 
 
T T A
 
 
 
C 1 0 'A' output is 0
 
 
 
Now we string some flip-flops together to create a table. Say we have a sensor on a beer bottling unit, that has to count 5 containers before changing the feed, we need to count around 5, o-r 101 in Binary. We'll need 3 flip-flops, for binary bits 0,1 and 2, akin to decimal bit worth of 1,2 and 4.
 
 
 
We will require the A production of the 3 flip-flops into a decoder black box, which we may use to find when we arrive at 5, then switch the supply. The W output of flip-flop 0 is handed to the toggle input of flip-flop 1 via an gate, so the next pulse from the indicator (which would go to all 3 flip-flops) at this AND gate can toggle the flip-flop, according to the importance of the N output, 0 or 1. Equally the B output of flip-flop 1 goes to the toggle of flip-flop 3 via an AND gate.
 
 
 
Our 3 Flip-Flops now come up with a truth dining table like this:-
 
 
 
INITIAL STATE
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
010 010 010 'A' outputs 000 - 0
 
 
 
HEART # 1
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
C10 C10 C01 'A' components 001 - 1
 
 
 
[The (D )hange flips FF0 (often). FF1 & FF2 are blocked by the AND gate which requires a 0 input from the previous FF 'T' result AND the pulse change.]
 
 
 
BEAT no 2
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
C10 C01 C10 'A' outputs 010 - 2
 
 
 
[The (C )hange flips FF0 (often). FF1 flips beacause the 'T' output from FF0 can be a 0 when the Pulse happens. FF2 is blocked as before.]
 
 
 
HEART # 3
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
C10 C01 C01 'A' components 011 - 3
 
 
 
[FF0 flips, FF1 is blocked again,as is FF2.]
 
 
 
BEAT number 4
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
C01 C10 C10 'A' components 10-0 - 4  
 
 
 
(FF0 flips, FF1 flips, FF2 flips.)  
 
 
 
BEAT #5
 
 
 
FF2 FF1 FF0
 
 
 
TBA TBA TBA
 
 
 
C01 C10 C01 'A' components 101 - 5 count total!
 
 
 
[FF0 flips, FF1 and FF2 are blocked.]
 
 
 
This counter can total to 111, 7 decimal, it then resets to 0. A number of interesting things to note are:-
 
 
 
1. FF0 flips every heartbeat. FF1 flips every 2 pulses. FF2 flips every 4 pulses an such like. These details can be-used to produce up a, which can be cascaded. As an example the 4 pulse output can go to a 4 pulse output is also given by a second counter which, totalling 16. This could be extended to make up a counter by deciphering a of 1010 (10 decimal) and applying this to toggle the next counter, etc. Think about 12 and 60 to your digital watch?
 
 
 
2. Go through the 'B' outputs from the-counter. In sequence the values are:- 111, 1-10, 101, 10-0, 011, 010 (7,6,5,4,3,2 decimal). Start to see the pattern? That's correct - a countdown timer! We'll be applying this in a later article. [http://falua.cesfelipesegundo.com/Ideologias/show_user.php?userid=2952 here's the site]
 

Latest revision as of 08:51, 6 July 2013


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